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Whether a water supply is called “soft” or “hard”* is dependent on the presence of two highly soluble minerals, calcium and magnesium. The dissolved minerals in water, will build up on contact surfaces, forming scaling and furring which may plug pipes and damage water heaters, leads to negative effect of life quality or efficiency of industrial production. Then “water softening” treatment is necessary. Based on decades of successful practice, a system with ion exchanging resin, typically positive charged with sodium ion is applied. 


*Water hardness is normally expressed as parts per million (ppm) of calcium carbonate, a term equivalent to the concentration of dissolved calcium and magnesium in the water. According to the standard of US Water Quality Association (WQA), the water is classified as “hard” when hardness is higher than 120ppm.


The Water Softener

On the right side of the figure explains the typical ion exchange resin based water softener and its working mechanism :


A water softener is mainly composed of resin barrels, salt/brine tank, control unit and pipeline system


Hard water enters through inlet, coming out as soft water after water softening system.

Water Softener Salt

When all the sodium in the resin is replaced with hardness minerals, the resin has to be regenerated by salt (NaCl). This also the reason those applied salt is called “water softener/softening salt” or “ion exchange resin regeneration salt”. Together with different water softening systems, “water softener salt” is widely used in the following applications: